Regarding where I am come from I would like to see Inner Mongolia China. Thereafter, most of them consider me as a Mongolian. I have to identify my nationality that could apply to International relations. Actually I am a Chinese Mongolian the reasons why I am saying that are because of history, region, geography and habit.
Dating back 13th century, the Mongol invasion of China involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom and the Southern Song. Genghis Khan established Mongol Empire after the battle with Western Xia in 1205 and 1207. 1 Since then he was warring several foreign conquests extended to black sea area west of central Asia, Eastern Europe. Mongolia was booming during the period of Genghis Khan, however, he was passed away during the war to Western Xia in 1227. One of his sons Kublai Khan was inherit his father’s place and established the Yuan dynasty which consisting the Mongol homeland and China in 1279. Furthermore, they set Beijing as capital. Since then he was united the China as well as issued the law of Yuan. In 1368, Ming Dynasty was replacing Yuan, and they forced Mongols back to their homeland. Thereafter the expulsion of Yuan rules from China, Mongols just could control Mongolia under their rules. [2. Kohn, George C. 2007. Dictionary of Wars 3rd ed.]
How did Mongolia separate from China? In 1911, Tsarist Russia considered it was the time to spilt China. They started training officials as well as sent mass of weapons in order to doing preparations. In the end of this year, Tsarist Russia declared Mongolia was independence. The Russian covered agreement was signed after one year. The Chinese government can’t garrison, immigration Mongolia. However, during Russian revolution 1917, Mongolia was lost the dependence and then they came back to China. There were lots of conflicts happened between China and Russia both of them were striving for Mongolia. Until 1922, Choybalsan push out “People’s Republic of Mongolia”, and there was no president setting all of the national affairs was solved by the government.
From other sides, Beijing government was unsatisfied with independence of Mongolia, and they were seeking for the assists from the Great Briton and America, however they received positive responses. In 1924, the Chinese government signed Sino-soviet agreement to admit Mongolia is part of China. While Soviet was not given up fighting for the Mongolia and the battles happened around board frequently. Moreover, Russia deliberate independent Mongolia, and they started Sino-soviet border friction, repeatedly reportedly invaded, etc. They tried to using soft power incited anti-China sentiment of the people via China’s civil strife. Accordingly, Mongolia held public election the result was the entire 381242 tickets vote for dependence. One year after the Nanjing government declared independence of Mongolia.
Based on the map of China, there is a clear boarder between Inner Mongolia China and Mongolia, which means Inner Mongolia is, belongs to China’s sovereignty. Therefore, the people living there are definitely identified as Chinese. Whereas the people who are living near the border have the same habits and languages. The region where I am living is totally influenced by the Han culture currently, named Chifeng. People are being educated by using Mandarin as well as daily conversation. They are no longer live in the tent which you would see in the photos. Convince transportation provide people nice life as while there are plants growing in Inner Mongolia.
Figures show that 42.5% of the area of the Mongolia soil has different degree of desertification, and is growing at 13% a year. Because of the economic difficulties in Mongolia, it is unable to control the situation of deterioration of desert. From 1998 to 2003, forest area in Inner Mongolia is increasing to 320 million mus; forest coverage is accounts for 14.8% of the total area. The Chinese government issue policies which are dealing with the environment problems there; such as, comprehensive treatment of the ecological environment, pilot and natural forest resources protection etc.
What’s more Mongolia is mainly financed by animal husbandry the level of industry is lower. The Mongolian is living poorly because of being controlled by Russia and still loaning huge debt from them. Due to the abundant nature resources Inner Mongolia now become the most vital raw material supplier in the North of China. Together with Aerospace, military industry, heavy vehicles and equipment industry makes Inner Mongolia sustained in developing economic. 2
I would not say Mongolia could have better conditions if they remained in China. The good thing is China investing Mongolia in mining sector, for instance. And the figure of investment is expected for 17.2% growth in 2012. In spite of the historical issue, China still willing to support Mongolian’s economy. 3
Moreover, according to data from the Mongolbank, it states Mongolia now is staining balance of trade. The figure shows below is MONGOLIA BALANCE OF TRADE 4
In conclude, Mongolia exports Mineral products, Natural or cultured stones, jewelry and animal origin products. The main exports partner is China that accounts for 89% of total exports. And Russia is one of the main import partners which takes 22% of total. It has been proved that China-Mongolia has more interdependently trading ties compared with other countries.